>

User Rating: 0 / 5

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

White Balance

White balance is used to adjust colors to match the color of the light source so that white objects appear white. Subjects may be lit by a number of different light sources, including sunlight, incandescent bulbs, and fluorescent lighting. Although to the naked eye all these different light sources may appear colorless, in fact they emit light of different colors. The image sensor in a digital camera will reproduce these color differences just as they are, with the result that without additional processing the color of the photograph would appear to change according to the light source. Auto white balance automatically processes the image to remove unwanted color casts by, for example, making photographs taken under incandescent bulbs more blue to correct the reddish cast of this type of lighting. Normally, auto white balance will produce the desired results without the photographer having to worry about the type of lighting. If auto white balance does not produce the desired results, the photographer can choose from a number of fixed white balance options according to the weather or the light source. The photographer can also choose a setting for direct sunlight or incandescent lighting to introduce a deliberate red or blue cast according to their creative intent.

Auto white balance
Auto white balance
“Direct sunlight”selected for a red cast
“Direct sunlight”
selected for a red cast
“Incandescent”selected for a blue cast
“Incandescent”
selected for a blue cast

 

 

 

 

Sample Camera Displays

camera information display
camera information display

White balance:
White balance is displayed as shown below.

AutoAuto
IncandescentIncandescent
CloudyCloudy
FluorescentFluorescent
ShadeShade
Direct sunlightDirect sunlight
Preset manualPreset manual

 

Auto White Balance
Custom
Kelvin
Tungsten
Fluorescent
Daylight
Flash
Cloudy
Shade

User Rating: 0 / 5

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

Aperture

Aperture controls the brightness of the image that passes through the lens and falls on the image sensor. It is expressed as an f-number (written as “f/” followed by a number), such as f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, /f4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, or f/32.

Changing the f-number changes the size of the aperture, changing the amount of light that passes through the lens. The higher the f-number, the smaller the aperture and the less light that passes through the lens; the lower the f-number, the larger the aperture and the more light that passes through the lens. For example, changing the aperture from f/4 to f/5.6 halves the amount of light passing through the lens and halves the brightness of the image that falls on the image sensor.

Changing the f-number also changes the distance in front of or behind the focus point that appears to be in focus. The higher the f-number, the greater the distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus; on the other hand, the lower the f-number, the shorter the distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus. The distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus is referred to as “depth of field.”

Photographing the Same Scene at Different Apertures

Changing the aperture changes depth of field.

High f-number (increased depth of field)

To view this content, JavaScript must be enabled, and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player.

  • The illustration is an artist's conception.
Depth of field: long
Click image to enlarge.

Low f-number (decreased depth of field)

To view this content, JavaScript must be enabled, and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player.

  • The illustration is an artist's conception
Depth of field: short
Click image to enlarge.

f-numbers

f-numbers change as shown below.

f-numbers

Raising the f-number one step is referred to as “stopping aperture down a step ” or “stepping aperture down an f-stop.” This halves the area of the aperture (or opening), halving the brightness of the image that falls on the image sensor. Lowering the f-number by one step is referring to as “stopping aperture up a step ” or “stepping aperture up an f-stop.” This doubles the area of the aperture (or opening), doubling the brightness of the image that falls on the image sensor.

If you are using a Nikon DSLR Camera, f-number changes in 1/3 steps; some models also support increments of 1 step and 1/2 step.

Sample Camera Displays

camera information display
camera information display

f-number:

Shown as f/4, f/4.5, f/5, f/5.6, etc.

Login

Welcome To the Club

Latest News

18 July 2017
18 July 2017
©2017 Photographerclubs. All Rights Reserved. Designed By Aniket kumar